Menstrual pain refers to pain in the abdomen which precedes or occurs during the menstrual period in a woman. It is sometimes referred to as menstrual cramps and occurs usually at any time just after ovulation until the end of menstruation. Menstrual pain lower abdomen is located mainly in the region either centralized (suprapubic or umbilical cord) or broadcast on the sides and may on the thighs or lower back. However tends the pain goes away because the menstruation is gradually coming to an end.
In the first half of the menstrual cycle prepares a woman’s body gradually to host of a pregnancy by thickening of the inner lining of the uterus cause. After ovulation if conception does not occur, these built-up inner lining of the uterus shed and removed from the body through menstruation. During this process, several chemical compounds, including prostaglandins, let the broken fabric lining to cause the muscular wall of the uterus and this contraction helps to expel the shed tissue from the uterus through the vagina in the form of menstrual bleeding. However, this contraction reduces also tend to the blood vessels of the uterus, to constrict the supply of oxygen in the womb and thus felt the cramp-like pain during menstruation. This process happens in every woman, menstruation, so many women experience during their menstruation usually a certain amount of pain and this is not necessarily abnormal. The good news is that the menstrual pain decrease with increasing age tends to be, and with increasing numbers of children, i.e. the older one and the more children you have, the less will the menstrual pain also. However, if excessive menstrual pain and incapacitating or a woman, the daily activities affected, then it is abnormal and is medically called dysmenorrhoea. Other symptoms that are associated with the dysmenorrhea may have nausea, vomiting, changes in the bowel habit (diarrhea or constipation), headache, dizziness, confusion, fainting, fatigue and hypersensitivity to sound, light, smell and touch.
Dysmenorrhea (abnormally excessive menstrual pain) can now be classified into two types, primary and secondary dysmenorrhoea. The primary type refers to dysmenorrhea without known cause (i.e. no physical or psychological cause for the pain to be found). The secondary type can be caused by certain medical conditions, including, but not limited to, the following:
- Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
- Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
- Intra-uterine contraceptive device (IUCD) copper pipes
- Ovarian cysts
- Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
- Stress and anxiety
Treatment of dysmenorrhea include pain management and special therapies for known cause.
Pain therapy includes:
- The following types of drugs are known to be effective against menstrual pain drug therapy-
- Other prescription pain medications (including drugs), such as Pentazocine, tramadol, codeine.
- Hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills)
- Home following not drug remedies relieve non-drug therapy – or at least reduces menstrual pain have been reported in some women:
- Drink warm beverages
- hot showers or baths
- Use a heating pad on the abdomen, below the navel
- light circular massage do fall down lower abdomen with the finger
- avoid heavy meals (eat light but often)
- increasing intake of dietary fibres (see more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, etc.) and reducing the intake of salt, sugar, alcohol, and caffeine (coffee).
- the legs keep increased when the lie down or lying on one side with knees bent
- Practicing relaxation techniques like meditation and yoga
- Exercises regular exercises, including pelvic rocking
- Control of the weight (remove, if overweight)
Cause-specific therapies include all treatments to solve one of the causes of secondary dysmenorrhea as
- Antibiotics, for example in the treatment of PID and sexually transmitted diseases
- Surgery for fibroids, ovarian cysts, etc.
- Hormone therapy, such as in the treatment of endometriosis
- Antidepressants, for example in managing vo